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Index to The Missing Times:

Note: This is an early version of the book's index and is not identical to that published in the final draft. Consequently, the page numbers do not correspond with those in the printed version. Also, this version contains a few errors that were later corrected during copy editing. This early version of the index is provided to help potential readers assess the book's contents.


A

A Psychological Warfare Casebook, 66

A Reporter's Life (book), 163, 164

A Strange Harvest (TV program), 179

ABC, 39, 74, 76, 177, 179

Abducted by Aliens? (TV program), 167

Abduction: Human Encounters With Aliens (book), 121

Academia and UFOs, 147

Adamski, George, 156

AEC. See Atomic Energy Commission

Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO), 107, 109, 124

and CIA's Robertson Panel, 107

and surveillance of, 115

and test of wire services, 114

AFS/Dialog Productions, 178

Aguilera, Christina, 187

Air Force. See U.S. Air Force

Air Force Regulation (AFR) 200-2

and role in censorship of UFO reports, 103

Air Staff 2(a), 142

Air Technical Intelligence Center, 102

Air Technical Intelligence Command, 109

Aircraft encounters with UFOs, 29, 127

and Braniff pilot's experience, 126

and JANAP 146, 103

and threats against pilots, 125

British Airways, 126

C-118 crash incident, 128

dangers from, 127

Edward Ruppelt on military pilot sightings, 101

examples on file at British Public Records Office, 128

Frederick Valentich case, 128

Frequency estimate of, 127

JAL 747 incident, 128

Kenneth Arnold, 100

Kinross AFB incident, 136

non-commericial, 104

Sokol helicopter incident, 128

Swissair incident, 127

United Airlines (1947), 101

Varig Airlines C-46, 126

Airline companies

pressure from Air Force about UFO reports, 104

Airline Pilots Association (ALPA), 119

Alamagordo, New Mexico

    UFO sightings near, 12

Albuquerque, New Mexico, 28, 114, 179

Aldrich, Jan, 5

about ghost rockets, 99

and Majestic-12 documents, 156

on airline company policies and JANAP 146, 104

on history of JANAP 146

Alfred A. Knopf (book publisher), 54

Aliens in the Skies (book), 176

Allen, Woody, 182

Altavista, 183

America Online, 184, 189

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

role in censorship of The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, 54

American Federation of Labor (AFL), 119, 12

and Frank Edwards, 120

as sponsor of Frank Edwards radio program, 119

American Society of Newspaper Editors, 77

Angleton, James Jesus, 52

Annex Foxtrot, 53

AP. See Associated Press

Apollo program (NASA), 105

APRO. See Aerial Phenomena Research Organization

Area 51, 159

Argumenten, 70

Armstrong Circle Theater, 164

Army, U.S., 29

Arnold, Kenneth, 100

sighting as trigger for additional UFO reports, 100

Assassination, 85

as method of UFO censorship, 88, 131

of journalists, 56

Associated Press (AP), 18, 46, 47, 51, 52, 113, 114

and possible link to CIA, 114

quotes Air Force official John Carter at Paine Field, 18

At the Threshold: UFOs, Science and the New Age (book), 177

Atomic Energy Act, 47, 49

Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 48, 68, 69, 133

Atrocity stories, 60

babies as victims, 73

yellow rain, 7

Attwood, William, 41

Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO), 118

Aviation Week & Space Technology, 121, 146, 159, 160, 161

B

B-52 bomber

and UFO report by Fish and Game employee, 13

Bagdikian, Ben, 77, 180

Baker, Robert A., 165

Bamford, James, 53

Barger, Brian, 51

Bassett, Donna, 166

and Time magazine, 121, 122

Bates, Bill, 152

Baton Rouge Advocate, 47

Battelle Memorial Institute, 142

Bay of Pigs, 50

BBC, 164

Beam, M. Thomas

reporter for Great Falls Tribune, 16

Beaverbrook, Lord, 59

Bell, Art, 131, 180

departure from commercial radio, 181

Bellevue, Washington

home of Robert Salas, 18

Berliner, Don, 5

and Majestic-12 documents, 157

Bernays, Edward L., 37, 63, 64

Bernstein, Carl, 38, 42

Berry College

content analysis of New York Times, 23

Bethe, Hans, 48

Beyond Top Secret (book), 116, 124

Bingham, Barry, 38

Blair, Bruce, 56

Boeing 737

and UFO over England, 127

Boeing Corp.

and Minuteman shutdowns, 18

as Minuteman prime contractor, 12

struggles to find answer to missile shutdowns, 18

Bogus investigations and reports, 85, 134

as possible UFO propaganda method, 90

examples of UFO-related, 141

Robertson Panel as, 108

University of Colorado UFO study, 109, 142

Boise, Idaho, 100, 101

Bonner, Raymond, 52

Boston Globe, 111, 112

and story by Leslie Kean, 112

survey of American newspapers, 72

Boulder Daily Camera, 114

Bourret, Jean-Claude

and UFO radio broadcasts, 120

Braden, Tom, 39

Bradley, General Omar Nelson, 57

Brazel, Mac, 124, 131

Brazil

media coverage of UFO reports missing, 114

Brender, Mark, 74

Brian, Earl W., 73

British Airways

and threats against pilot Graham Sheppard, 126

explanation for pressure on UFO witnesses, 126

near-miss with UFO, 127

British Interplanetary Society, 26

British Provost and Security Services, 117

Broad, William, 154

Broadcast stations

KGFL, 124

KMGH-TV, 179

KOAT, 114

KOJM asked to confirm radar UFO report, 18

KQDI-AM/FM, 8

KSWS, 114

KUDI-AM, 8

WCCO, 153

Brookings Institution

compartmentalization study censorship, 56

study on the impact of contact with extraterrestrials, 31

Brown, Anthony Cave

quoted about the London Controlling Section, 66

Brown, T. Townsend, 115

Brugioni, Dino A., 182

Bryan III, Joseph, 116

Bryan, C.D.B., 5

commenting on NOVA UFO abduction program, 166

comments about abductees and media, 129

Brynildsen, Capt. John P.

role in confiscation of Mariana UFO film, 117

Bullard, Arthur, 61

Bullard, Thomas, 186

Burchett, Wilfred, 68

Bush, George, 39, 55, 72, 73, 164

Bush, Vannevar, 33, 156

Business Week, 65

Butler, Ewen, 47

Byrne, John A., 152

C

C-118 cargo aircraft crash, 128

C-46 cargo aircraft

UFO sighting from, 126

C-5A transport aircraft, 139

Cable News Network (CNN)

owned by Time-Warner, 76

Cable TV, 177

California Institute of Technology, 108

Canadian Department of Transport, 33

Canfield, Cass, 54

Cantril, Hadley (social psychologist), 31, 145, 164

cited in CIA's Robertson Panel, 107

conclusions about CBS Orson Welles broadcast, 31

CapCities, 39

Carlberg, Herbert A.

CBS director admits censorship for Air Force, 112

Carter, John

says Air Force not excited about UFOs, 18

Carvalho, Bernard J.O., 115

Cascade County, Montana, 11, 13, 14

Casey, William, 39, 51, 72, 164

Casolaro, Danny, 56

Cattle mutilation phenomenon, 29, 179

and Mystery Stalks the Prairie, 11

as reason for press interest, 15

documentary by Linda M. Howe, 179

proposed causes of, 11

CBS, 31, 38, 39, 41, 64, 65, 67, 73, 76, 112, 156, 162, 163, 164, 165, 172, 176, 177, 182, 185

and Armstrong Circle Theater censorship, 112

and CIA's Robertson Panel, 163

and CIA-inspired UFO propaganda film, 162

and KMGH-TV, 179

and swamp gas cover story, 135

and the CIA, 39, 164

and the Orson Welles Mercury Theatre of the Air, 30

and TWA Flight 800 story, 127

and War of the Worlds panic, 164

as CIA asset, 38

celebrates the New Deal's second anniversary, 64

letter about Walter Cronkite interview, 163

Censorship, 36, 46, 97, 113

Air Force pressure on airline companies, 104

Air Force Regulation (AFR) 200-2, 103

and Official Secrets Act, 124

and role of newspaper editors in WWII, 47

and the role of the elite news media, 85

by U.S. Navy in WWII, 45

conclusions about UFO, 132

Coral Lorenzen's comments about, 109

covert, 49

in World War II by journalists, 47

of airline pilots, 101

of airline pilots and protest about, 103

of articles and books about atomic energy, 48

of foo fighter reports in World War II, 98

of ghost rocket reports in Scandinavia, 99

of Japanese balloon attacks, 47

of UFO sightings, 84

of wire service UFO reports, 113

of wire services, 51

overt and covert (defined), 42

possible accidents, 93

possible methods for UFO sightings, 85

theory about wire service, 24

World War II station locations, 46

Censorship at source, 85, 86, 102

and NASA, 105

by National Security Agency (NSA), 105

examples in UFO crisis, 98

origins of, 47

reporters ordered from radar room, 102

Robert Salas ordered not to talk about missile incidents, 17

role in Minuteman situation, 92

Center for UFO Studies, 155, 157, 181, 185, 186, 188, 194, 196, 197

and Web site, 189

as source of UFO information, 25

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 19, 28, 30, 32, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 65, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 81, 82, 92, 96, 107, 108, 110, 111, 113, 115, 141, 146, 149, 151, 155, 157, 163, 164, 168, 170, 189

and assassination, 132

and author Robert Temple, 123

and character assassination, 88

and Cold War cultural propaganda, 145

and deception conference, 108

and domestic UFO propaganda, 109

and Donald Menzel, 158

and Generoso Pope Jr., 150

and Glomar Explorer, 134

and Glomar Explorer press coverage, 135

and Hadley Cantril, 31

and Hudson Valley UFO sightings, 139

and news organizations, 109

and NICAP, 115, 116

and photographic trickery, 182

and possible UFO propaganda, 91

and Ramparts magazine, 52

and report by Gerald K. Haines, 155

and Robertson Panel, 107, 108, 109

and secrecy agreements, 115

and suspected involvement with University of Colorado UFO study, 114

and the National Enquirer, 149

and UFO disinformation, 154

and UFO photography, 183

and UFOs, 105

and Walter Cronkite, 163

and wire services, 114

as source of funding for National Enquirer, 151

comments about Robertson Panel by David Saunders, 108

possible role in Minuteman/UFO story, 92

sources and methods, 96

Cessna, 29

O-2A as possible decoy in Hudson Valley UFO incident, 139

Chadwell, H. Marshall

memo to CIA regarding UFO activity, 28

Chalker, Bill, 118

Chancellor, John, 39

Character assassination, 85

against physicist James McDonald, 121

as possible UFO censorship method, 87

Gilbert Levin's experiences with NASA, 122

of Robert Wood by Edward Condon, 123

UFO-related examples given, 120

Chatelain, Maurice, 105, 106

on UFO sightings by astronauts, 105

Chavez, Dennis, 124

Chouteau County, Montana, 14

UFO sighting wave of November 19, 1975, 14

Chronicle, 59

Churchill, Winston, 60

CIA. See Central Intelligence Agency

Citizens Against UFO Secrecy (CAUS), 115

Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), 127

Civil War, 43

Civilian Saucer Investigation, 107

and CIA's Robertson Panel, 107

and surveillance of, 115

Clark, Jerome, 5, 130, 146, 158

on Donald Menzel, 158

on Donald Menzelís role, 158

Clarke, Arthur C., 191, 195

Clear Intent (book), 11

and Montana UFO sightings, 11

Close Encounters of the Fourth Kind (book), 166

Close Encounters of the Third Kind (movie), 16

CNI News, 157, 184, 185

CNN (Cable News Network), 76

Coast to Coast, 24, 131, 180

Code of Federal Regulations

and NASA secrecy, 105

Cohn, Roy, 150

COINTELPRO (FBI covert program), 52, 71

Colby, William, 42

Cold War, 35, 41, 47, 57, 70, 71, 73, 74, 76, 81, 110, 145, 151, 154

and UFOs, 30

College Press Services, 40

COMETA (French report about UFO threat), 30

and comments about U.S. government UFO disinformation, 155

Commando Solo (psychological warfare aircraft), 70

Committee for Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), 125, 137, 146, 147, 148, 159, 161, 164, 165, 167, 170

and academics, 147

Committee of Concerned Journalists, 77

Committee on Public Information (CPI), 40, 61

Computer UFO Network (CUFON), 18, 197

and Web site, 188

Condon Commission. See University of Colorado UFO study

Condon, Edward U., 109, 143, 144, 158, 162, 171

and Dr. Robert Wood, 123

recommendations about UFO research, 144

Confiscation of evidence, 85, 87

attempted by NSA employee, 123

examples of UFO-related, 117

Gordon Cooper's story, 118

photographic, 118

Congress for Cultural Freedom, 145

Considine, Bob, 68, 140, 141

Conspiracy of Silence (book), 124

Content analysis of New York Times, 23

Cooper, Gordon

and Edwards AFB UFO, 118

Copley News Service, 38

Copley, James, 38

Corso, Philip J., 29, 33

Cosmopolitan, 141

Costello, Frank, 150, 151

Cover stories, 85, 134

as possible UFO propaganda method, 89

helicopters as, 135

non-UFO examples of, 134

Covert action

and the CIA, 81

CPI. See Committee on Public Information

Creel, George, 40, 46, 61, 62

Creighton, Gordon (Flying Saucer Review editor), 120

Cronkite, Betsy (wife of Walter), 67

Cronkite, Walter, 164

and knowledge of CIAís role in CBS film, 163

as narrator of CIA-inspired UFO propaganda film, 162

hired by CBS, 67

reports about atomic testing, 68

role in World War II, 67

stationed in Moscow, 67

Crossfire (CNN TV program), 39

Cruickshank, Charles (war historian), 66

CSICOP. See Committee for Scientific Investigations of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP)

D

Daily Mail, 40, 59

Damage control, 85, 134

and Hudson Valley UFO sightings, 137, 139

and Washington, D.C., UFO sightings, 137

as possible UFO propaganda method, 89

at Quantico Marine base, 136

examples of UFO-related, 136

Dan Air

policy against talking with UFO investigators, 126

Danielou, Cardinal, 120

Daniels, Clifton, 41

Dateline (TV program)

and John Mack's experiences, 167

Davis, Elmer, 65

Davis, Sid, 39

DC-3

and UFO sighting, 101

de Beyssac, Jean Vincent (airline pilot), 126

de Rochefort, Nicholas, 115

Dean, John, 52

Debunking

and CIA's Robertson Panel, 107

Decent Interval (book), 55

Deep-cover agents, 85, 134

as possible UFO propaganda method, 91

UFO debunker Philip J. Klass as, 159

UFO related, 157

Defence of the Realm Act, 43, 44

Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)

and surveillance of Society for Scientific Exploration, 116

monitoring of UFO news reports, 113

Dennison Daily News, 100

Department of Energy (DOE), 49

Department of Justice, 49

Department of Propaganda in Enemy Countries, 64

Der Monat, 70

DeTrani, Joseph, 50

Deuley, Thomas

and Majestic-12 documents, 157

Deutch, John M., 41

Dexter, Michigan, 162

swamp gas incident, 135

DiIanni, Denise, 166, 167

Directorate of Scientific and Technical Intelligence (DSTI), 142

Discover (magazine), 169, 170

and Hudson Valley UFO story, 168

Discrete contacts, 85

as UFO censorship tool, 86

UFO censorship examples, 110

Disinformation, 38, 85, 91, 134, 154, 155, 161

amplifying, 156

and CIA report by Gerald K. Haines, 154

and digital editing technology, 182

and Discover magazine, 169

and Dr. R.V. Jones, 108

and Majestic-12 documents, 157

and the Roswell incident, 155

and UFOs, 154

COMETA's conclusions, 155

conclusions of UFO researchers about Majestic-12, 157

Donald Menzel as deep-cover agent, 158

reducing, 156

UFO-related, 153, 156

uses cited by COMETA report, 156

Division of Films, 62

Division of News, 62

Documentation

Air Force destroyed, 15

lack of, 86

Majestic-12, 156

of UFO-related deception campaign, 95

Dodd, Anthony, 131

Donovan, Col. William, 65

Donovan, Roberta, 11, 14

as co-author of Mystery Stalks the Prairie, 11

Doolittle, General James H.

possible role in foo fighter study, 99

possible role in ghost rocket episode, 99

Dorman, William A., 35, 48, 50, 51

Doty, Richard C., 179

Doubleday (publisher), 70

Dreamland, 24, 180

Druffel, Ann, 131

Drury, Tom, 117

Dryfoos, Orvil, 50

Dulles, Allen, 38, 39, 41, 52, 164

relationship with Arthur Hays Sulzberger, 38

Durant, Frederick C.

and letter from Thornton Page, 163

and UFO book Watch the Skies!, 170

Dyke, Rod

founder of UFO Newsclipping Service, 21

E

EC-135 airborne launch control center aircraft, 12

ECHELON, 56, 113

Edwards Air Force Base, 118

Edwards, Frank, 110, 114, 119, 120

and wire service coverage of UFO reports, 114

claim of recruitment attempt, 110

sabotage of radio program claimed, 119

Eisenhower, Dwight, 29, 67, 76, 77, 156

El Mundo Neuvo, 70

El Salvador, 52

Electra House, 64

Electric Artists, 187

Elite news media

definition of, 21

Ellsberg, Daniel, 49, 57, 58, 190

Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 45

Emmons, Charles F., 5, 121, 123, 165, 177

Epstein, Edward Jay, 67, 75, 108

Espionage Act, 44, 45

and JANAP 146, 103

Estimate of the Situation, 141

Evening Post, 59

Ewen, Stuart

on role of Progessive journalists in propaganda effort, 61

quote about use of emotions by CPI, 62

Examiner (San Francisco newspaper)

reports NASA's concern about UFO meeting, 116

Executive Order No. 2594, 61

Exercises, security

theory discounted, 15

Express, 59

Extraterrestrial hypothesis for UFOs, 26, 158

and COMETA report, 155

and Edward U. Condon, 143, 144

F

F-106 jet interceptors

scrambling of, 13

scrambling of on Nov. 8, 1975, 13

F-16 fighter

Belgian Defense Minister releases radar tapes from, 20

F-4 Phantom jets

in pursuit of UFO, 104

F-89C all-weather interceptor, 136

Fairway Corporation, 115

Falconbridge, Ontario, Canadian base, 20

Farish, Lucius, 5, 21, 22, 24

on false image presented by national news media, 24

on wire service coverage, 21

Fawcett, Lawrence, 11, 15

as co-author of Clear Intent, 11

FBI. See Federal Bureau of Investigation

FDR. See Roosevelt, Franklin, D.

Fear and Favor in the Newsroom (film), 168

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 128, 138, 169

and Hudson Valley UFO sightings, 137, 138

reports no jets, 13

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 71, 123, 127

Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 64

Federation of American Scientists (FAS), 154, 186

Ferrera, Sal, 40

Fifty-four twelve (5412) Committee, 39

Financial News

as conduit for atrocity story, 60

Fire in the Sky (book), 161

and covert disinformation agent theory, 161

Fire in the Sky (movie), 161

First Amendment, 7, 36, 49, 64, 79, 175

and Victor Marchetti, 54

Fitzsimmons, Alan (editor of Heywood Advertiser), 124

Flesher Pass, 16

Flight, missile, 12, 17, 18

descriptions of, 12

Flying Saucer Review, 120

Flying saucers, 81, 105

and campaign to stop rumors about, 102

and Saturday Evening Post, 140

George Meany's comments about Frank Edwards, 119

newspaper coverage of, 106

origin of phrase, 100

press coverage of, 22

Smith memo about, 33

Flying Saucers -- Serious Business (book), 119

Flying Saucers (book), 158

Foerstel, Herbert, 27, 56

FOIA. See Freedom of Information Act

Folk reality, 22, 25, 26, 77, 78, 176, 180

defined, 22

Foo fighters, 81, 98, 99

as possible weapons, 99

possible origin of term, 98

Forbes, 151

Foreign Technology Division, 29, 117

Forest Gump (movie), 182

Forrestal, James

role in National Security Act of 1947, 69

Fort Benton, Montana, 17

Fort Industries, 47

Fort, Charles (author), 100

Four-Minute Man Bulletin, 62

Four-Minute Men, 62, 145, 146

Fowler, Ray, 124

about Hynek and swamp gas story, 136

Fox TV

interviews Lt. Col. Rolwes, 15

Fox, Cynthia, 188

France-Inter (French radio service), 120

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 9, 11, 14, 17, 19, 25, 29, 52, 79, 93, 96, 115, 123, 149, 171, 172, 173, 188, 193, 197

and 1967 missile shutdowns, 18

and atomic testing, 69

and book Clear Intent, 11

and Minuteman missile shutdowns, 17

and National Security Agency, 105

and the Hudson Valley UFO case, 139

and UFO news items, 113

Friedman, Stanton, 5, 156, 157, 158

and Roswell disinformation, 155

as target of surveillance, 116

Friend, Robert, 130, 155

From Beyond (TV series), 178

Front organizations, 85, 134

Air Staff 2(a) as, 142

as possible UFO propaganda method, 90

examples of possible UFO-related, 145

Fuller, John G., 143, 176

Fulton, Robert, 137

Funding, covert, 84

G

Galley, Robert (French Defence Minister), 120

Galloway, Dave, 68

Garelik, Glenn, 168, 169

Gelb, Leslie

self censorship by, 51

Gemini program (NASA), 105

General Accounting Office (GAO), 132

and Rep. Steven Schiff's interest in Roswell, 119

probe of Reagan-era propaganda programs, 72

General Electric (GE), 146

as owner of NBC, 76

Gesell, Gerhard (federal judge), 105

Gevelin, Philip, 40

Ghost rockets, 81

censorship of reports, 99

classified documentation about, 99

Gibbs-Smith, Charles

and CBS UFO propaganda film, 163

Glomar Explorer (CIA ship), 134

Goebbels, Joseph, 37, 63

Goldwater, Barry (senator)

quoted about being rebuffed by Gen. LeMay, 29

Good, Timothy, 115, 124

comments on NICAP-CIA ties, 116

Goupil, Jean, 120

Government Communications Headquarters, 54

Graham, Katherine, 51

views about the role of the press, 51

Graham, Sheppard (airline pilot), 126

Gray, Gordon (newspaper publisher), 39

Great Depression, 64

Great Falls Tribune, 16, 17, 18

Great Falls, Montana, 8, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 140, 181

UFO motion pictures taken in, 117

Greenwood, Barry J., 5, 15, 16, 22

as co-author of Clear Intent, 11

on differences between national and local coverage, 22

on lack of press interest, 24

Grenada, 74

use of press pools in, 53

Ground Saucer Watch (GSW), 19

Group leaders, use of, 85

as possible UFO propaganda method, 90

Groves, General Leslie R.

quote about radioactivity, 68

Gruson, Sydney

muzzled by Sulzberger, 41

Guatemala, 41

journalist in paramilitary operation, 40

training of Cuban exiles in, 50

Guenette, Robert, 177

Guerin, Pierre (French astrophysicist), 31, 183

comments on social impact of UFOs, 31

Gulf of Tonkin incident, 71

Gulf War, 53, 73, 74

H

Haberer, Harry, 140

Hager, Nicky, 56

Haines, Gerald K., 154, 155

Haines, Richard, 5, 104, 125, 129, 130, 169

and interviews with airline pilots, 125

findings about Valentich case reported by, 30

on formation flying at night, 138

Halberstam, David

quoted about Tonkin Gulf reporting, 71

Hall, Richard

and Majestic-12 documents, 157

as target of surveillance, 116

Handel, Michael, 75

Hanks, Tom, 182

Hansen, Lee, 5

Harassment

as possible UFO censorship method, 88

of Australian UFO photographers, 118

of UFO witnesses, 85, 128

Harkins, R. Roger, 114

Harlowton, Montana, 14, 17

yellow UFO reported by SAC crew, 14

Harper and Row (publisher), 54

Hartman, William K., 144

Hatch, Carl (senator), 124

Haut, Walter, 101

Havre, Montana, 8, 9, 18

H-bomb, 68

Hearst Publications

lawsuit against by Nicholas Mariana, 141

Hearst, William Randolph, 43

Helicopters, 12, 14

and Air Force public relations, 13

and Minuteman security teams, 12

and national security threats, 14

as theory for Hudson Valley UFO, 138

mid-air collision with UFO, 128

mystery, 11

reasons to doubt explanations, 14

reported in area of missile site Juliet, 14

Helms, Richard, 52, 113

as UPI wire service correspondent, 39

Heywood Advertiser, 124

Hill and Knowlton (public relations firm)

and Gulf War propaganda, 73

Kuwaiti babies as victims ploy, 73

Hill, Barney, 176

Hill, Betty, 176

Hill, Robert A.

letter to Missoulian questioning Air Force explanation, 17

Hillenkoetter, Roscoe, 116

Hillsdale, Michigan, 162

swamp gas incident, 135

Hiroshima, 68

Hogshire, Jim, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153

Holloman Air Force Base, 117, 179

threats against personnel over UFO sightings, 124

Hollywood, 182

and censorship, 46

role in World War II propaganda, 65

role in WWI propaganda campaign, 62

Home Box Office (HBO), 177, 179

Honolulu, Hawaii, 45, 46

Hoover, J. Edgar, 150

Hopkins, Budd, 165

and NOVA UFO program, 165

Horrigan, Marianne, 139

House Committee on Appropriations

James McDonald's testimony before, 121

House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 176

Howe, Linda M., 5, 18, 179

interview with Robert Salas, 18

Hudson Valley UFO sightings, 20, 137, 168, 170

and New York Times, 137

and threats from NSA employee, 123

Hughes, Howard, 134

Hussein, Saddam, 73

Huyghe, Patrick, 5, 19, 25, 93

story in New York Times Magazine, 19

Hynek, J. Allen, 25, 100, 109, 120, 144, 157, 162, 164, 181, 185, 189, 196, 197

and swamp gas cover story, 135

on amount of UFO information, 25

on unscientific nature of Project Blue Book, 142

I

Il Progresso, 149, 150

Illegal activities

as reason for national security blanket, 33

Imbrogno, Philip, 123, 139

on media silence about Hudson Valley sightings, 20

Incarceration, 85

as possible UFO censorship method, 88

NASA ET exposure law, 130

of U.S. Marines after UFO sighting, 130

of UFO witnesses, 130

Incident at Exeter (book), 176

Inside Edition (TV program), 33

Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 93, 148

International UFO Reporter, 146, 185

Internet, 76, 175, 181, 183, 185, 187, 188, 189, 196

and Art Bell, 180

and MUFON, 186

and psychological operations, 187

and UFO newsgroups, 183

as alternative publishing system, 188

as propaganda tool, 187

as source of UFO news, 183

as tool for fighting back against the media, 188

as tool for surveillance of UFO groups, 188

impact on politics, 186

Michael Lindeman's view of, 185

role in political surveillance and psychological operations, 186

Thomas Bullard's comments about, 186

threats to, 189

use by Pentagon, 187

Invention Secrecy Act of 1951, 48

Izvestia, 76, 183

J

Jacobs, David, 141, 172

as advocate of UFO threat theory, 84

on book Watch the Skies!, 170

on impact of JANAP 146, 103

quoted about impact of Kenneth Arnold sighting, 100

review of Watch the Skies!, 171

Jafee, Sam, 41

JANAP 146, 103

and role in UFO censorship, 103

effects on airline company policies re UFOs, 104

Japan Airlines (JAL), 128, 129

Johnson, Clarence Kelly, 153

Johnson, Hiram W. (Calif. Rep.), 44

Johnson, Val, 165

Joint Chiefs of Staff, 57, 65, 179

Joint Security Control (JSC), 66

Jones, Eric M.

study about colonization of galaxy, 26

Jones, R.V.

as close friend of Dr. H.P. Robertson, 108

role in deception conference, 75

role in World War II, 108

ties to CIA's Robertson Panel, 109

Jones, Tommy Lee, 19

Journal of Scientific Exploration (JSE), 197

Journal of UFO Studies (JUFOS), 196

Judd, Lt. Col. Frederick

public relations officer talks to press, 17

Jung, Carl (psychologist), 30

Just Cause (newsletter), 115

K

Kahn, David, 53

Kai-shek, Chiang, 67

Karamessines, Thomas H., 52

Kean, Leslie, 5, 111, 112

Kennedy, John F., 39, 50, 121, 150, 171

Kennedy, Joseph, 150

Keyhoe, Donald, 130, 164

and CBS Armstrong Circle Theater censorship, 112

and Kinross AFB case, 136

Kidnapped by Aliens? (TV program), 165, 166

King, Larry, 29, 129

Kinross Air Force Base, 136

Kirtland Air Force Base, 179

Kitchener, Lord, 43

Klass, Philip J., 146, 147, 159, 160, 161, 167

and media success, 159

and NOVA UFO program, 164

and possible ties to U.S. intelligence agencies, 161

and secrecy, 160

and use of character assassination, 159

attacks against James McDonald, 121

comments about secrecy and UFOs, 159

qualifications as deep-cover UFO propagandist, 161

Klotz, Jim, 5, 16, 17, 18

Knight, John S., 47

Knightly, Phillip, 37, 44, 45, 59, 60, 61, 68

Knox, Frank (Navy Secretary), 45

Knox, T.W. (Civil War reporter), 43

Kohler, Pierre, 120

Koop, Theodore F., 46, 47

Koppel, Ted, 185

Krushchev, Nikita, 121

Kuhn, Thomas, 191

Kuwait, 73

L

La Prensa, 70

Laird, Melvin, 152

and Generoso Pope Jr., 151

Lantana, Florida, 153

Larry King Live (TV program), 161

Lasswell, Harold, 63

Launch Control Center, 17

description of, 12

Launch Control Facilities

description of, 12

LaVigne, Michelle, 166

Lawrence, T.E., 62

LCC. See Launch Control Center

LCF. See Launch Control Facility

LCS. See London Controlling Section

Leach, Robin, 163, 164

Leap of Faith (book), 118

Lee, Martin, 51, 72, 73

LeMay, General Curtis, 29

Lester, John (reporter), 103, 104

Levin, Gilbert (scientist), 122

Levine, Norman, 144

Lewis, Charles J., 51

Lewiston, Montana

police department reports UFOs, 13

Librarian, Great Falls Tribune

on UFO/missile silo press coverage, 16

Life, 188

Lights

seen by Great Falls Tribune reporter, 16

turned off by UFO when approached, 14

UFO, on truck driver John Struble, 16

Limited hangout, 41

Lincoln, Abraham, 43

Lindeman, Michael, 5, 184, 185

Lippmann, Walter, 36, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64

Lockheed Skunk Works, 153

Loftus, Elizabeth, 165

London Controlling Section (LCS), 66

London Daily Express, 68

Look, 176

Looking Forward (book), 55

Lorenzen, Coral, 109, 114, 124

Lorenzen, Jim, 114

Loring Air Force Base, Maine, 19, 24

and book Clear Intent, 11

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, 26

Los Alamos, New Mexico, 26, 28, 143, 171

Los Angeles Times, 19, 135, 177

Louisville Courier-Journal, 38

Low, Robert J., 143, 144

Luce, Henry

cooperation with CIA, 38

Lunar Orbiter program (NASA)

and possible censorship, 106

Lynch, Charles

quoted about role of journalists in WWII, 67

M

MacArthur, John R., 53

on Gulf War propaganda, 74

Maccabee, Bruce, 123

Mack, John, 5, 111, 121, 122, 129, 165, 166, 167

and Dateline, 167

and harassment of UFO abductees, 129

and NOVA UFO program, 165, 166

character assassination against, 121

comments on media coverage of UFOs, 167

Mackenzie, Angus, 54, 55, 58, 73

quote about backfiring of CIA plan, 55

Macleish, Archibald, 65

MacLeish, Eric, 166

Macmillan Company, 53

Mafia, 151

and the National Enquirer, 150

and the Office of Naval Intelligence, 151

Majestic-12, 156, 158

and Donald Menzel, 158

Majestic-12 Group Special Operations Manual [SOM]: Extraterrestrial Entities and Technology, Recovery and Disposal, 156

Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 124

Manhattan Project, 47, 68, 84, 108, 143

and propaganda, 68

Manship, Charles P., 47

Marchetti, Victor (former CIA officer), 32, 40, 50, 54, 55, 57, 70, 157

theories about UFO secrecy, 32

Mariana, Nicholas (photographer), 117, 140, 141, 181

Marks, John, 40, 50

Mars: The Living Planet (book), 122

Marshall, Andrew W., 75

Martin, John (1878 UFO witness), 100

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 150, 166

McBoyle, John, 114

McCampbell, James

quoted about wire service censorship, 24

McCarthy, Joseph, 150

McClelland, Clark, 106

McCoy, Alfred W., 54, 151

McDonald, James, 121, 131, 163

and Philip J. Klass, 159

McDonnell Douglas Corp., 123

McDonnell, James S., 123

McLaughlin, R.B. (Navy Commander)

author of True article about White Sands UFO photography, 118

Meany, George, 119

and Frank Edwards, 120

Media coverage

and ethical considerations, 189

Barry Greenwood's comments about local and national, 22

effects of bias toward officialdom, 106

estimated number of UFO news items, 21

in tabloid press, 19

interest of UFOs in ICBMs reported in Montana, 16

Keith Wolverton asks for help, 15

of Belgian black triangle sightings, 114

of Hudson Valley sightings, 20

of UFO witnesses, 129

of UFOs travels at glacial pace, 20

reasons for Montana press coverage, 15

reporter for Great Falls Tribune sees lights, 16

role of ridicule in, 22

theory that press created UFO mythology, 22

UFOs seen by media personnel, 16

Wolverton asks Air Force to make statement, 15

Meese, Ed, 73

Men in Black (movie), 19

Menzel, Donald, 137, 158, 159, 192

and covert relationships with intelligence agencies, 158

and his UFO sighting, 158

and role in CBS propaganda film, 163

as deep-cover propaganda agent, 158

Mexico City

coverage of UFO reports, 111, 113

Meyer, Cord, 54

MHCHAOS, CIA operation, 40, 52, 71

Mickelson, Sig, 39

hires Walter Cronkite, 67

Microwave motion detectors

and Minuteman missile intrusions, 12

Ministry of Defence, 142

Ministry of Information, 45

Minot Air Force Base, 20

Minuteman ICBM, 8, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 92, 135, 148, 149, 162, 171. See Silos, ICBM

description of sites, 12

missiles go off line after UFO encounters, 17

official Air Force description of, 12

sightings in 1966 and 1967, 17

Missile targeting information, 13

Missoula, Montana, 16

and UFO buzzing incident, 13

Missoulian, 17

reports Air Force public relations comments, 17

MIT Center for International Studies, 150

Moncla, Felix (pilot), 136

Monitoring of UFO reports, 85

examples given, 113

to aid censorship, 86

Montague, Ewen (author of The Man Who Never Was), 66

Moore, Olden, 130

Moore, William

as target of surveillance, 116

Morland, Howard, 48

Morrow, Marty (airline stewardess, UFO witness), 101

Moynihan, Daniel P. (senator), 48, 57, 82

Mugridge, Ian (author), 43

Murrow, Edward R., 39, 119

Mussolini, Benito, 149, 151

Mutual Broadcasting Network, 119, 120

Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), 186

Mystery Stalks the Prairie (book), 11, 13, 16

reasons for writing, 11

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 130

and censorship, 105

and ET exposure law, 130

and surveillance of UFO meeting, 116

Information Security Program, 105

National Command Authorities, 12

National Enquirer, 19, 92, 93, 148, 149, 150, 152, 153, 157, 164

and Bob Pratt, 152

and the Mafia, 150, 151

and Walter Cronkite story, 163

as psychological warfare tool, 148

coverage of UFO/ICBM story, 93

first national coverage of ICBM UFO sightings, 19

National Geographic, 182

National Geographic Society, 47

National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP), 112, 116

CIA surveillance of, 115

links to CIA, 115

National security

and elite news media, 179

and helicopters, 13

and the CIA's Robertson Panel, 107

and the elite news media, 27

and the rise of authoritarianism, 36

and the role of the elite news media, 97

and UFO pseudo-environment, 133

and UFOs, 27

and UFOs as policy problem, 82

and UFOs, reasons for concern, 27

COMETA report on UFO threat, 30

control of inventions and, 48

definition of, 27

physical threats to from UFOs, 28

Robert Salas comments on Air Force statements about, 18

social threats to, 30

National Security Act of 1947, 69

and creation of the CIA, 48

as foundation for censorship, 54

National Security Agency (NSA), 39, 53, 56, 87, 105

and Donald Menzel, 158

and sabotage of David Kahn book, 53

and surveillance of UFO groups, 116

and threats against Hudson Valley UFO investigators, 123

report about UFO hypotheses, 29

National Security Council, 29, 39

National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 84, 55

National Student Association

funding by CIA exposed by Ramparts, 72

National Transportation Safety Board

and TWA Flight 800, 127

Nature, 192

and CSICOP, 146

Naval Intelligence, 45

Navy, U.S., 53, 129

and Donald Menzel, 158

and World War II censorship, 45

NBC, 39, 52, 64, 73, 76, 167, 168, 177, 179, 182

and Dateline UFO coverage, 167

New Deal, 64

New Mexico, 68, 82, 117, 118, 119, 124, 131, 132, 134, 156

and Roswell incident, 101

UFO sighting by Donald Menzel, 158

New Scientist

and CSICOP, 146

New York Enquirer, 150

New York Herald, 43

New York Times, 10, 19, 21, 23, 24, 38, 41, 49, 50, 51, 52, 57, 65, 66, 67, 72, 76, 93, 95, 96, 110, 111, 112, 129, 135, 148, 156, 163, 169, 172, 176, 187

and coverage of CIA UFO report, 154

and Hudson Valley UFO coverage, 137, 138, 139

and swamp gas cover story, 135

as CIA asset, 38

content analysis of, 23

reports GSW's FOIA results, 19

New York Times Magazine, 25, 93

carries UFO article by Patrick Huyghe, 19

New York Times News Service, 24

New Yorker, 166

Newhouse, Delbert, 181

News management

rationale for, 9

Newsday, 53, 182

Newsweek, 21, 51, 66

and foo fighter censorship, 98

NICAP. See National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena

Nichols, Sandy, 188

Night Flying (book), 138

Night Siege (book), 138

Nixon administration

and Pentagon Papers case, 49

Nixon, Richard, 49, 52, 151, 152

NORAD. See North American Air Defense Command

North American Air Defense Command (NORAD), 13, 17

records describe objects as UFOs, 14

tracks UFO on radar, 13

North American Aviation, 105

North, Oliver, 51

Northcliffe, Lord, 40

NOVA, 164, 165, 166, 167

and Dr. John Mack, 166

and letter from John Mackís attorney, 166

NSA. See National Security Agency

Nuclear weapons, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 68, 82, 102, 133

and UFO press coverage, 92

and UFOs, 11

O

Oak Ridge, 28

Ober, Richard, 52

Oberg, James, 164

Office of Censorship, 46

Office of Coordinator of Information, 65

Office of Facts and Figures, 65

Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), 151

Office of Public Diplomacy (OPD), 72

Office of Special Investigations (USAF), 117

Office of Strategic Services (OSS), 65, 69, 70, 149, 150, 151, 152

and the National Enquirer, 149

Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 27

Office of War Information (OWI), 46, 65

Official reality, 22, 25, 26, 27, 77, 78, 79, 176, 180

defined, 22

Official Secrets Act, 37, 124, 175

and UFO radar tracking reports, 124

use against Heywood Advertiser, 124

Olson, Geoff, 5

Olson, Jess, 5

Olssen, Robert, 109

Operations Crossroads, 68

Oppenheimer, Robert, 33

Oprah, 129

Oregonian, 101

OSS. See Office of Strategic Services

OWI. See Office of War Information

P

Page, Thornton

confesses role in CBS propaganda film, 163

Paine Field, Washington, 18

Paley, William (CBS chairman), 39, 67, 164

cooperation with CIA, 38

Panama

use of press pools in, 53

Parade, 19, 93

reports ICBM sightings, 19

Paramount, 161

Paris Match

reports Belgian UFO sightings, 20

Parker, Sir Gilbert, 61

Parliament (British), 43, 45

Parry, Robert, 51

Patent and Trademark Office, 48

Pearl Harbor, 17, 46, 65, 67, 113, 171

and justification for CIA, 69

and Navy censorship plans, 46

censorship after, 45

Peebles, Curtis, 170, 171, 172

Pegler, Westbrook (United Press reporter), 44

Penson, Chuck, 5, 8

Pentagon, 19, 30, 34, 56, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 82, 119, 164, 179, 187, 192

and Charles Swettís Internet assessment, 186

and compartmentalization, 56

and Frank Edwards, 119, 120

and General Gamble, 110

and Generoso Pope Jr., 152

and psychological operations, 187

and Sidney Shallet, 140

and the National Enquirer, 149

and use of press pools, 52

and Vietnam news coverage, 190

and Washington, D.C., UFO sightings, 137

and White Sands article, 118

as source of funding for science, 192

Pentagon Papers, 49, 57

Persinger, Michael

and NOVA TV program, 165

Pew Research Center, 77

Pflock, Karl, 116

Phillips, David Attlee, 38

Photo Fakery (book), 182

Photography

and CBS News lies about UFO, 162

and uses of digital editing technology, 182

confiscation of UFO, 117

effect of digital editing technology on UFO, 182

motion picture, of UFOs, 181

of Australian UFO, 118

of Belgian black triangle UFO, 20

of Gulf War combat, 53

of New Guinea UFO, 117

of UFO by Shelby Times publisher, 16

of UFO by White Sands scientists, 118

of UFOs over Washington, D.C., 102

Pike Report, 70

Pike, John, 154

Pilots, aircraft. See Aircraft encounters with UFOs

Polls, 10, 121, 176

about public confidence of news (Yankelovich), 77

about public interest in UFOs (Gallup, 1966), 162

difference between official reality and folk reality, 22

Industrial Research survey, 25

Pew Research Center on credibility of news media, 77

reaction to ET contact (NIDS), 32

survey by American Society of Newspaper Editors, 77

survey of American Astronomical Society, 25

Time / CNN, June 15, 1997, 22

Pondera County, Montana, 14

UFO sighting wave of November 16, 1975, 14

Pope, Generoso Jr., 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 164

and CIA files on, 151

and the Nixon White House, 151

and views about UFOs, 153

as deep-cover agent, 157

Pope, Generoso Sr., 149, 150

Power, Montana, 8

Powers, Richard Gid

quoted about secrecy and democracy, 42

Pratt, Bob, 5, 29, 148, 149, 152, 153

Pravda, 75, 183

Press pools, 52

Prevves, 70

Price, Byron, 46, 47, 113

Princeton University, 31, 61, 108

Project 1947, 197

Project Blue Book, 28, 101, 102, 106, 130, 140, 141, 142, 154, 155, 172

Project Blue Book Special Report 14, 103, 142

Project Grudge, 140, 141, 142

Project Mogul, 102, 135, 155

origin of cover story with CIA's Karl Pflock, 116

Project Saucer, 141

Project Sign, 141

Prometheus Books, 147, 170

PROMIS software, 56

Propaganda, 36, 39, 63, 97, 134, 147, 195

and number of CIA assets, 40

and the role of the Internet, 187

books and articles as possible UFO, 91

black, 133

examples of UFO-related, 133

films and TV programs as possible UFO, 91

Japanese racial stereotyping in, 66

Nazi, 37

possible UFO-related methods of, 89

problems in identifying, 133

white, 133

role of book publishing in, 70

UFO books and articles, 86, 134, 162, 168, 172

UFO films and TV programs as, 86, 134

uses in Persian Gulf War, 73

uses in the nuclear era, 68

uses in Vietnam War era, 71

uses in World War I, 59

uses in World War II, 64

white and black defined, 64

Propaganda Assets Inventory (CIA), 40

Pseudo-environment, 35, 59, 78, 89

Psychological Strategy Board, 39

Psychological warfare, 63, 65, 67, 70, 72, 84, 107, 134, 153, 164, 187

and Generoso Pope Jr., 150

and the Internet, 186

and the National Enquirer, 148

as possible UFO propaganda method, 91

dangers from UFOs, 30

multiple components of, 98

National Enquirer coverage as, 92

role of CIA's Robertson Panel, 107

Psychological Warfare Staff (CIA), 115, 116

Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), 164, 165, 167, 177

and NOVA UFO programs, 167

Public relations, 7, 73, 74, 89, 187

Air Force, 16

Air Force denies interest in Montana sightings, 16

Air Force denies objects tracked on radar, 18

Air Force denies threat of Montana sightings, 17

Air Force feigns indifference about missile shutdowns, 18

and Air Force helicopter explanations, 13

and Edward L. Bernays, 63

and Mariana UFO film, 140

and Saturday Evening Post UFO coverage, 140

and UFO reporting, 139

bogus investigations and reports as, 141

Captain John Carter denies Air Force interest, 18

catastrophe over True magazine article, 118

crisis over Washington, D.C., UFO sightings, 137

possible use of consultants in UFO propaganda, 89

swamp gas fiasco, 162

Washington National crisis, 102

Publications Review Board, 55

Q

Quantico, Virginia, 130

and U.S. Marine UFO witnesses, 136

Quest International, 131

Quiet, 70

R

Rabinowitz, Dorothy, 165

Radar, 8, 9, 13, 18, 20, 48, 102, 129, 193

Air Force denies unusual activity, 18

and CBS UFO film, 163

and visual UFO sightings, 13

Belgian black triangle UFO, 137

CBS lies about, 162

height-finding, 8

Kinross AFB incident, 136

Official Secrets Act used to silence reports of UFOs, 124

operators ask KOJM for confirmation of UFO, 18

stealth technology, 153

tracking of Belgian black triangle, 20

UFO tracking by NORAD, 13

visibility of SR-71 on, 154

Washington, D.C., sightings, 136

Radio Free Asia, 70

Radio Free Europe, 70

Radio Liberty, 70

Rain, Frank, 95

Ramparts (magazine), 40, 52, 72

and Carl Rowan, 40

and the CIA, 52

RAND Corporation, 75

Randle, Kevin, 124

Randles, Jenny, 118, 126, 127, 128, 142

Rather, Dan, 185

Rawlins, Dennis, 146

Reagan, Ronald, 39, 51, 52, 55, 72, 73, 76, 164

Ream, Joseph H., 39

Recollections of Roswell, Part II (videocassette), 182

Recruitment, 134

of influential journalists, 85

of influential journalists for UFO censorship, 86

of influential spokespeople, 85

of influential spokespersons as possible method of UFO propaganda, 90

of journalists, 38

of journalists by CIA, 40

of journalists for UFO-related censorship assignments, 109

of spokespersons, examples of UFO-related, 145

Redfern, Nicholas, 113, 116, 117, 124, 128, 131

Redford, Robert

as character in Three Days of the Condor, 96

Remington, Frederick, 43

Rense, Jeff, 181

Reuters, 59, 67

as a propanda outlet, 59

deleted details of UFO story, 114

Review-Journal (Las Vegas newspaper), 102

Revolutionary War, 43

Ridicule

as factor in reporting of UFOs, 22

Roberts, Andy, 99

Roberts, George

threats against during Roswell incident, 124

Robertson Panel, 107, 108, 109, 111, 113, 115, 116, 141, 145, 147

and book Watch the Skies!, 170

and CBS UFO propaganda film, 163

and Dr. R.V. Jones, 109

as justification for domestic propaganda, 109

comments about by David Saunders, 108

description by Curtis Peebles, 171

observations about by sociologist Michael Swords, 108

Robertson, Cliff

as CIA officer in Three Days of the Condor, 96

Robertson, H.P., 107, 108

Rodeghier, Mark, 5, 155, 181, 194

and Majestic-12 documents, 157

comments on UFO videotapes, 181

on impact of Internet on Center for UFO Studies, 185

on possible role of Internet for monitoring UFO groups, 188

Rogers, Mike, 161

Rolwes, Lt. Col. Gerald E.

discounted security exercise theory, 15

Roosevelt administration

and U-boat crisis, 94

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 46, 64, 65, 149

decides to keep censorship and propaganda separate, 65

self censorship by photographers, 47

skepticism about compliance engineers, 64

Rosenberg, Howard, 177

Roswell Army Air Force Base, 101

Roswell incident, 106, 177

and Air Force disinformation, 155

and book Watch the Skies!, 170

and confiscation of evidence, 117

and disinformation, 155

and GAO investigation, 132

and incarceration of Mac Brazel, 131

and missing documents, 119

and Philip J. Klass, 159

and threats against KGFL, 124

and videotaped productions, 182

and weather balloon explanation, 81, 101

and wire service censorship, 114

government position on, 115

Project Mogul balloon as cover story, 135

threats against life of George Wilcox and family, 123

Roswell, New Mexico, 101

Rowan, Carl, 39, 72

Rubins, Jerry, 41

Ruppelt, Edward, 28, 101, 102, 106, 140, 172

on Air Force policy toward press, 104

on handling reporters at Project Grudge, 140

on interest of UFOs in military bases, 28

on Saturday Evening Post article by Sidney Shallet, 140

quoted about UFO security lid being down tight, 102

Ryan Electronics, 105

Ryan, J. Harold, 47

S

Sabotage, 85

as possible UFO censorship method, 87

of French radio broadcasts, 120

of UFO program advertising, 119

UFO-related examples of, 119

Sabotage Alert Team (SAT), 12

ordered to investigate UFOs, 14

SAC. See Strategic Air Command

Sacramento Bee, 112

and story by Leslie Kean, 112

Sagan, Carl

and Edward U. Condon, 144

and NOVA UFO program, 165

and temperature inversion theory for UFOs, 137

Salas, Robert, 5, 17, 18

describes 1967 UFO encounters at Minuteman sites, 17

Salt Lake City, Utah, 101

San Francisco, California, 45

Sarbacher, Robert, 33

confirms contents of Smith memo about UFO research, 33

Sarnoff, David

possible role in ghost rocket episode, 99

SAT. See Sabotage Alert Team

Saturday Review, 176

Saunders, David, 108, 140, 141, 143, 144

and French radio tapes, 120

comment about layers of secrecy in Robertson Panel, 108

Saunders, Frances Stonor, 145

Scandinavian nations

and ghost rockets, 99

Schiff, Steven (congressman), 119, 132

and death from cancer, 132

Schmalz, Jeffrey (reporter), 138

Schwarzkopf, General H. Norman, 53

Science, 192

Science Museum of Minnesota, 125

Scientific American, 27, 48, 146

and CSICOP, 146

refused to cover Wright Brothers, 26

Scientists

as UFO witnesses, 26

opinions about UFOs, 25

Scripps-Howard news organization, 47

Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), 26, 192

Seattle, Washington, 18, 46, 101, 128, 132, 159, 188

and Boeing Corp., 12

CSICOP news conference, 137

Secrecy

reasons for, 30

Secrecy agreements, 38, 55, 85, 87, 90, 93, 110, 115

and claims of Frank Edwards, 110

and NASA personnel, 106

and Olden Moore case, 130

as UFO censorship method, 87

for non-commercial pilot, 104

with the Sulzbergers of the New York Times, 38

Secrecy and Democracy: The CIA in Transition (book), 55

Secret Power: New Zealandís Role in the International Spy Network (book), 56

Secret Science: Federal Control of American Science and Technology (book)

definition of national security, 27

Secret Treaty. See UKUSA Security Agreement

Sedition Act of 1918, 44

Sensitive Compartmented Information, 56

Shallet, Sidney, 140

Shandera, Jamie, 156

Sharkwatchers (UFO surveillance group), 117

Shelby Times (newspaper), 16

Shelby, Montana, 16

sheriff's office, 13

Sheppard, Graham (airline pilot), 126

Sherman, General William Tecumseh, 43

Sightings (radio program), 181

Silos, ICBM, 8, 12, 16

E-2, 12

K-1, 13, 14

K-3, 13

K-4, 14

K-7, 13

L-1, 13, 14

L-3, 13

L-4, 13

L-5, 13

L-6, 13, 14

M-1, 13, 14

Simon & Schuster

as publishers of The UFO Cover-Up, 11

Skeptical Enquirer, 146

Sleppy, Lydia

and Roswell wire service censorship, 114

Smith, E.J. (United Airlines Captain)

reports UFO sighting in Oregonian, 101

Smith, Walter Bedell, 67, 164

Smith, Wilbert, 33, 67, 163

memo about secret UFO research in U.S., 33

Smithsonian Institution Press

and role in publishing UFO books, 170

Smokey Stover comic strip, 98

Sneddon, Jim, 127

Snepp III, Frank W., 55

Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE), 116, 197

surveillance of, 116

Solomon, Norman, 51, 72, 73

Sorrells, John H., 47

Sounds

jet-engine, 13

Spanish American War, 43

Sparks, Brad, 149, 172

Special Access Programs, 56

Spin control. See Damage control

Spiro, Kenneth V. (police officer), 137

Sprinkle, Leo, 131

SR-71, 153, 154

and Aviation Week & Space Technology, 160

St. George, Nevada

exposure to radiation from atomic testing, 68

St. Petersburg Times, 74

Stacey, Terrell (airline pilot), 127

Stamford, Major General John A.

and UFO press conference, 137

Stark, Sherie, 177

Star-Ledger (Newark, N.J., newspaper), 104

carried article about airline pilot protest, 103

Statesman (Boise, Idaho, newspaper)

quoted Lt. General Nathan Twining, 100

Steinman, William, 33

Stevens, Ralph (United Airlines first officer), 101

Stewart Airfield, 139

Stimson, Henry (Secretary of War), 46

Stinebaugh, Lloyd, 16

publisher of Shelby Times photographs UFO, 16

Strategic Air Command (SAC), 13, 17, 28, 139

crews observe yellow UFO, 14

Strentz, Herbert, 21, 22, 128, 142

estimates number of UFO news items, 21

Stringfield, Leonard

as target of surveillance, 116

Struble, John T.

cement-truck driver's close encounter, 16

Stuart, Mark (airline pilot), 127

Stuart, Sir Campbell, 40, 64

Sturrock, Peter, 25, 26

findings of astronomer survey, 25

Sulzberger, Arthur Hays (NYT publisher), 38, 41, 52, 110, 111

cooperation with CIA, 38

Sulzberger, C.L., 38

Supreme Allied Headquarters

and foo fighter censorship, 99

Supreme Court, 49, 54, 55

Surveillance

of UFO groups and individuals, 85, 87

UFO-related examples of, 115

Surveys. See Polls

Swayze, John Cameron, 68

Swett, Charles, 186, 187

Swissair

and UFO near miss incident, 127

Swords, Michael (sociologist), 5, 108, 141, 144, 163, 171

on book Watch the Skies!, 171

on Edward U. Condonís behavior, 144

on the University of Colorado UFO study, 143

T

Tabloid press

and Freedom of Information Act, 19

as possible psychological warfare tool, 92

items avoided by UFO Newsclipping Service, 21

Talk radio, 177, 180

Tammany Hall, 149

Targeting of groups, 134

as possible UFO propaganda method, 90

UFO-related examples, 147

Tate, Keith

role in NASA surveillance of UFO meeting, 116

Technology transfer

from UFO research, 32

Tehran Journal, 113

Telecommunications Act of 1996, 180

Teller, Edward

and Encyclopedia Americana censorship, 49

Temple, Robert (author)

harassment claims of, 122

Terauchi, Kenju (JAL 747 pilot), 128, 129

Terkel, Studs, 168

Teton County, Montana, 14

UFO sighting wave of November 19, 1975, 14

The Art of War (book), 59

The Case of the UFOs (TV program), 164

The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (book), 50

censorship of, 54

The Codebreakers (book), 53

The Cultural Cold War (book), 145

The Day After Roswell (book), 33

The Hynek UFO Report (book), 136

The Interrupted Journey (book), 176

The Invasion of Mars (study by Hadley Cantril), 31

The Man Who Never Was (book), 66

The Media Monopoly (book), 180

The Penkovsky Papers (propaganda book), 70

The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia (book), 54

The Progressive (magazine), 48, 49

The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (book), 28, 140, 172

as a work of propaganda, 172

The Saturday Evening Post, 140

The Sirius Mystery (book), 122

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (book), 191

The Times (of London), 40, 47, 59, 60, 64

The UFO Controversy in America (book), 172

The UFO Cover-Up, 13

formerly published as Clear Intent, 11

The UFO Enigma (book), 158

The UFO Experience: A scientific inquiry (book), 136

The Well, 183

The World of Flying Saucers (book), 158

Thomas, Lowell, 62, 119

Thought, 70

Threats

against Australian UFO witnesses, 118

against commercial airline pilots, 125

against George Wilcox and family, 123

against German civilian pilot, 104

against Holloman Air Force Base personnel, 124

against individuals and organizations, 85

against Montana radio station in 1967, 124

against news organizations, 124

against the Science Museum of Minnesota, 125

against UFO investigator Robert Todd, 123

against UFO witnesses as censorship method, 88

examples of UFO-related, 123

Three Days of the Condor (movie), 96

Time, 21, 22, 38, 40, 51, 65, 66, 67, 70, 76, 121, 122, 168, 172, 182

and Harvard psychiatrist John Mack, 121

Time Warner, 189

Time, Inc.

as CIA asset, 38

Timmerman, John, 5

Todd, Robert, 123

Top Secret / MAJIC (book), 156

True (magazine), 118

Truman, Harry, 68, 156

and Venona intercepts, 57

Tulien, Tom, 5, 178

Tunick, Irve (CBS writer), 112

Turin, Italy

UFO sightings over, 120

Turner, Jonathan

claims about British government surveillance, 117

Turner, Stansfield, 55

TWA Flight 800, 127

Twining, Nathan, 100, 156

Tzu, Sun (author of The Art of War), 59

U

U.S. Air Force, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 28, 29, 33, 70, 82, 99, 101, 102, 109, 112, 123, 130, 132, 135, 136, 140, 141, 142, 144, 155, 156, 162, 171, 172

1952 Washington, D.C., press conference, 102

and 1947 Roswell press release, 101

and CBS, 112

and CBS Reports, 162

and Col. Richard Weaver's Roswell report, 155

and cover stories, 136

and credibility with public, 135

and description of Minuteman system, 12

and Donald Keyhoe, 112

and JAL UFO case, 129

and JANAP 146, 103

and Kinross AFB cover story, 136

and Mariana UFO film controversy, 117

and Minuteman situation, 92

and missile/UFO press coverage, 92

and New Guinea UFO photograph, 117

and Nicholas Mariana UFO film, 140

and Project Blue Book, 142

and Richard C. Doty, 179

and Roswell disinformation, 155

and scrambling of jets, 17

and security test theory, 15

and Sidney Shallet, 140

and stealth aircraft disinformation, 153

and swamp gas cover story, 136

and termination of Project Grudge, 141

and the Estimate of the Situation, 141

and the University of Colorado UFO study, 143

and UFO damage control, 137

and UFO sighting by Donald Menzel, 158

and University of Colorado UFO study, 144

at 1966 congressional UFO hearing, 162

correspondence with Robert Low, 144

Office of Special Investigations, 179

pilots blast censorship, 103

Regulation 200-2, 103

statement to press about scientist seeing flying objects, 101

U.S. Information Agency (USIA), 39, 40, 72

and Betsy Cronkite, 67

U-2, 154, 155

U-boats

and press coverage, 94

UFO Abductions: A Dangerous Game (book), 167

UFO Coverup? Live From Area 51 (TV program), 29

UFO Encyclopedia (book), 130, 158, 197

UFO Hypotheses and Survival Questions (NSA report), 29

UFO Magazine, 131

UFO Newsclipping Service, 21, 24

UFO! Danger in the Air (book), 127

UFOs. See Unidentified Flying Objects

UFOs -- Identified (book), 147

UFOs: Friend, Foe, or Fantasy (TV program), 162, 163

UKUSA Security Agreement, 69, 81, 87

Unidentified Flying Objects

1966 and 1967 sightings near missiles sites, 17

and national security, 9

as counter-intelligence problem, 82

as policy issue, 83

Belgian black triangle sightings, 20

black, tubular object, 13

buzzing of police cruiser near Great Falls, 13

coverage by Montana press, 15

dangers to aircraft, 29

in Brazil as reported by Bob Pratt, 29

possible hostility of, 84

problem of motivations, 83

radar tracking of, 8, 13

radar-visual reports in Washington, D.C., 102

radar-visual sightings at ICBM sites, 13

theodolite photography of, 117

tracked on NORAD radar, 13

turned off lights when approached, 14

United Press, 44, 47, 67, 87, 113

and censorship of Pearl Harbor details, 45

and UFO censorship, 102

United Press International (UPI), 39, 51, 73

United States Intelligence Board, 53

University of Colorado, 108

University of Colorado UFO study, 109, 114, 123, 140, 143, 144, 162, 170

and journalist John G. Fuller, 176

and role of Dr. R.V. Jones, 109

UPI. See United Press International

Upshot-Knothole, 68

Use of group leaders, 134

USIA. See U.S. Information Agency

V

Valentich, Frederick Paul (missing pilot), 29, 30, 128, 136

Vandenberg, General Hoyt S., 141

Varig Airlines

policy against reporting UFOs, 126

Venona intercepts, 56

Video cameras

effects on UFO reporting, 181

Vietnam War, 52, 53, 71, 72, 190

Viking spacecraft (NASA)

and Gilbert Levin's experiment, 122

Village Voice, 70

Voice of America, 39

Von Braun, Werner, 106

Von Neumann, John, 33

W

Walker, Tom (Wall Street Journal reporter), 20

Wall Street Journal, 19, 114, 148, 185, 187

review of NOVA UFO program, 165

ridicules Belgian black triangle sightings, 20

Walt Disney, 76

mentioned by CIAís Robertson Panel, 107

Walton, Travis, 161

and NOVA UFO program, 165

and Philip J. Klass, 161

War of the Worlds, 30, 145

War Powers Act, 46

Washington Institute of Technology, 33

Washington National Airport sightings

and book Watch the Skies!, 170

Washington Post, 19, 40, 49, 51, 52, 72, 111

reports Montana and other military sightings, 19

Washington Times, 112

and story by Leslie Kean, 112

Watch the Skies! A Chronicle of the Flying Saucer Myth (book), 170, 172

review by Michael Swords, 171

Weapons System Evaluation Group, 108

Weather

as possible cover story for UFO sightings, 89

ruled out helicopter explanation, 14

Weaver, Col. Richard, 155

Weinberger, Caspar, 51

Weiner, Tim (NYT reporter), 41

Welles, Orson, 30, 31, 107, 164

Wells, H.G., 30

coined phrase "the war that will end war", 43

Western Michigan University, 108

Westinghouse

as owner of CBS, 76

Whaley, Barton, 75

White House

and the National Enquirer, 149

White Sands, New Mexico, 28, 118, 124, 172

White, Theodore, 67

Who's Who, 150

Widnall, Sheila (Air Force Secretary)

asked by Inside Edition about secret aircraft and UFOs, 33

Wildermuth, Capt. Ron, 53

Williams, Pete, 74

Wills, Roger (airline pilot), 127

Willwerth, James (Time reporter), 122

Wilson, Woodrow, 44, 61

and censorship, 44

Winn-Dixie grocery story chain

and the National Enquirer, 151

Wire services, 9, 18, 21, 24, 25, 44, 46, 51, 74, 113, 114, 185

and Frank Edwards, 114

and lack of coverage, 9

and Pearl Harbor attack, 45

and UFO coverage, 21

censorship of, 25

coverage estimated by Lucius Farish, 21

only seldom were UFO stories carried, 21

Reuters, 59

role in WWII censorship, 47

United Press, 47, 67

United Press carries story about UFO censorship, 102

UPI acquired by Earl W. Brian, 73

UPI and USIA deal, 73

Wisner, Frank, 69

Wisner's Wurlitzer, 70

Wolfe, Karl (technician), 106

Wolverton, Keith, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16

appeals to the media for help, 15

as co-author of Mystery Stalks the Prairie, 11

Wood, Robert

and attacks by Edward Condon, 123

Woodward, Bob, 51

World War I, 37, 40, 44, 63, 73, 133, 145, 173, 190

and propaganda, 59

censorship and propaganda in, 43

World War II, 35

and British deception in, 66

and growth of secrecy, 37

and JANAP 146, 103

and the OSS and Mafia, 151

and UFOs, 98

censorship in, 44

role of Dr. R.V. Jones in, 108

U-boat crisis in, 94

World Wide Web, 183

as alternative publishing system, 188

Wright Brothers

Scientific American's refusal to cover, 26

Wright Field, 117, 140

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, 29, 159

Wurtsmith Air Force Base, 20

X

X-Files (TV program), 189

Z

Zechel, Todd, 115



In 2002, The Missing Times was awarded "Best Book In a UFO Subject" by Britain's UFO Magazine.